Thoth travels to the Americas
Real Name: Thoth
Post-Hyborian era through calender Birth of Christ
former ruler of Heliopolis;
former God of the Moon
(Heliopolitan gods of Egypt);
formerly the Ogdoad (Hermopolitan gods of Egypt)
Hellbent, Karanthes, Keftu, Knights Templar,
Rammon (son of Rammon);
formerly worshipped by the Egyptians, and the Nemedians of the
Known Relatives: Nun
(Atum, brother), Seshat (wife), Panther God (Bast,
Lion God (Sekhmet,
nephew), Shu (nephew),
nephew), Hathor, Tefnut (nieces), Mahes (Apedemak, grandnephew),
(grandnephew and grandniece),
(great-great-grand-nephews), three unidentified sons (may just be
if the Elder Gods are to be considered siblings, then
Chthon, Hyppus, Oshtur, and Set
are his uncles and aunt.
Asten, Djehuty, God-Bird of
Hab, Ibis, Ibis the
the Two Combatant Gods,
Lord of Divine Words, Lord of Khemennu, Lord of Ma'at, Mehi, Sheps,
Base of Operations: Temple
of Thoth (presumably associated with the realm Celestial
(near modern-day El Ashmunein, Egypt);
his worshippers had multiple Temples of Ibis, including in
Numalia, Nemedia and in
Akkhora, Shem; the
Nest of Sacred Ibis, a few hours horseback ride from Messantia,
Argos, was the primary seat of worship after the Ibis worshippers
were driven from Stygia
First Appearance: (Referenced) Captain
America Comics#20 (November, 1942);
(seen; as Ibis) Marvel Feature I#6 (September, 1976);
(seen; as Thoth) Thor: Blood Oath#6 (February, 2006)
Powers/Abilities: Thoth presumably has
the standard godly abilities, such as superhuman strength,
durability, etc., as well as extreme longevity (he is at least
12,000 years , if not a million years, old or older), resistance
to conventional disease, etc. He is known for his extreme wisdom.
At least in the past he had certain abilities related to the moon.
As Ibis, 10, 000 BC and before (perhaps for hundreds of
thousands, or even a million years or more), it would appear that
Thoth engaged in some direct combat with beings as powerful as
Set, though it may be that he only opposed Set's actions and never
actually fought the Elder God. He granted power to such items as
Eye of Ibis and the
Staff of Ibis. He may have supplied power to the Book of
Thoth, though that may have been a black magic tome that used his
name in vain.
Thoth typically adopts an ibis-headed form when appearing
One of the first things that seem to confirm
the diffusionists view are pyramids.
They are found at both sides of the Atlantic Ocean and although
mostly they're quite different in design, there's one in present
Mexico, reminding me of the pyramids at Gizeh in Egypt: the
"Pyramid Of The Sun" in Teotihuacan.
This is in the first place because of the
straight forward design, lacking any ornaments. And even more:
there's a tunnel underneath the structure. Not a nicely build one,
like in Egypt, but more like a rough, hewn (maybe even natural)
cave. It is possible, that the pyramid had been build over an much
earlier sacred site.
Sceptics argue that the American pyramids
are very much unlike the ones in Egypt. This is partially correct:
Almost every one (maybe all, I'm not sure) of the well known
pyramids in Mesoamerica has steps leading to the top (where
usually a small temple was placed) and has no tunnels and chambers
inside. In Egypt it is the other way around. Additionaly, the
timeframe doesn't fit. The Egyptian pyramids at Gizeh are thought
to be build around 2600 - 2500 BC by pharaohs of the
4th dynasty and the majority in America within the first millenium
AD. But some facts must not be forgotten:
When we talk pyramids, we usually associate this with the stunning
marvels of plain beauty at Gizeh in Egypt, and in America we think
of the richly decorated step-pyramids of the Aztecs, Maya and
Toltecs. But in Egypt, pyramidbuilding included step-pyramids and
continued up to the 17th dynasty and stopped around 1550 BC, and
pyramidbuilding in Mesoamerica began much earlier, with the
Olmecs. Thanks to the oil industry, nothing of that survived. The
Olmec civilization started around 1500 BC, as far as we know now!
Additionally, even older pyramids were found in Southamerica,
build from adobe bricks by people like the Tucume and the Huaca.
Nonetheless, pyramids may not be a very good
example of diffusionism. No real link can be made. The pyramid is
a basic geometric shape and the differences in design might be
considered too great. A bit harder to explain is the appearance of
traces of cocain and nicotine in Egyptian mummies. Since both
substances are found in native plants in America but not in Africa
(in that time), some researchers think of a possible trade link.
If you want the hole story, you can read a transcript of the
TV-programme about the
Mystery of the Cocaine Mummies (new window).
But maybe, they not only "shared a smoke",
but also religious ideas? John A. West describes in his book
"Serpent in the sky" a phenomenon, that can be found on many
Egyptian wallcarvings and -paintings: Some figures have two
left hands or two right hands. Take a look:
| This pharaoh has two left
|| Closeup of the same
West explains it as a sign whether the
person in question is in a purely receiving or purely giving
position. This pharaoh receives life and power from the two gods
beside him, so he is purely receiving and shown with only
I started looking for these pictures in
other books about Ancient Egypt, but after a while I found them
also in Mesopotamia, which is not very surprising, giving the
relative closeness of the two cultures...
|| The Babylonian god Marduk
...and then in America. In South
America, to be specific.
The first in Cerro Sechin, one of the oldest cultures in that
(This stone is the only one with that specific feature that I
know of, the others seem to have all "regular" hands.)
..and the next in Tiahuanaco, inside the walled complex known
as "Calasasaya". As in the previous picture, the (normally)
right hand had to be shown from the inside, in order to turn
it into a left hand.
But similarities between these ancient
cultures don't stop here.
The origin of the Olmecs
The upcoming and decline of the Olmec
culture is still not understood today. Very little is known about
them in general. As I said earlier, nothing of the Olmec
buildings, pyramids and temples survived, when the mighty god of
the black gold took possession of their former homeland. All that
is left, are the smaller artifacts. Possibly the most mysterious
objects of stonework are the enormous heads. 17 have been found
yet. Most of them are about 2 meters tall and weighing several
tons and they share a specific property: They seem to have a
typical negroid physiology. Only few archaeologists are willing to
admit that. In recent years, some even seriously investigate this
question. Maybe, some day, a satisfying answer will emerge. See
(For larger versions of these and more
pictures of Olmec sites, take a look here:
AnthroArcheArt's Digital Images of Olmec Sites) (new window)
Many theories exist about the possible
African origin of the Olmecs. One of these theories states, these
people were actually from Nubia, which was south of Egypt (now
This theory looked to me not more interesting than others, until I
found a particular picture in a book about Ancient Egypt. I'm very
sorry, that I can't place this picture here, because I don't have
this book myself. It showed a small object (the size of a ring),
made in Nubia, depicting a human face looking out of a
lions mouth. Now, this is something! I have never before seen
something like this made in the Old World, but it is a common
theme in Mesoamerican cultures, especially the Aztec. In these
cultures, the animal typically would be an eagle, a coyote or a
This "modern Nubian" at a festival somewhere
in the USA certainly shares his taste for earrings with the Olmec...
|But serious: the african
physiology is evident.
I found this picture here somewhere on the net. A professor
tried to use it as proof, that the heads don't show Africans,
but native Americans. It is a Tzotzil from the state of
Chiapas in Mexico.
I don't argue that he is a Tzotzil. But does it do anything to
the fact that this man also has some of the negroid facial
Ancient Egyptians in the new world?
In issue #8 of The Ancient American, G. Thompson
translated a few paragraphs from Mariano Cuevas' 1940 book: Historia
de la Nacion Mexicana. We now summarize that translation.
In August 1914, Professor M.A. Gonzales was excavating Mayan ruins in
the city of Acajutla, in Mexico. The two illustrated statuettes were
uncovered. On the male, the headdress, the beard, and the cartouche are
all typically Egyptian in style. The male is thought to represent
Osiris, the female Isis.
(Thompson, Gunnar; "Egyptian Statuettes in Mexico," Ancient
American, 2:12, no. 8, 1995.)
In the same issue of The Ancient American, the issue of
whether the ancient Egyptians reached the New World is joined with pro
and con articles. The first is entitled: "The Egyptians Were Here!" It
is written by R.A. Jairazbhoy, like G. Thompson an ardent diffusionist
and author of the recent book Rameses III: Father of Ancient America.
No need to ask what Jairazbhoy's position is on the issue!
The second article is a rebuttal to the whole Egypt-in-America
business by E.
Lurio. His title: "Point: No Egyptians in Ancient America." Lurio is
also the author of the 1990 book: A Fractured History of the
Discovery of America. Lurio concludes: "Sorry folks! It just ain't
Finally, G. Thompson comes to the fore again with: "Counter Point:
Egypt's Role in Ancient America." Thompson's latest contribution to the
anomalist's library is: American Discovery. We have to warn
readers that the issue is contaminated with frauds and wishful
correlations on one hand and, on the other, by derisive dismissals of
artifacts and epigraphy that really may be legitimate.
Frontiers #98, MAR-APR 1995. © 1995-2000 William R. Corliss
|Science Frontiers Sourcebook Project
- Booklist: December 15, 1977
- New York Times: April 3, 1979
41, Issue 3, p. 470-470 1980,
Vol.56:3, P.615 1983,
Vol.58:3 June 1984,
Vol.72:3 Dec 1987
- Library Journal: June 1, 1981
- The Science Teacher: March 1983
- Choice: June 1982; September 1983
- Science Books and Films, Sept/Oct 1983
- Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada,
81, no. 1 1987
- American Journal of Physics,
Volume 52, Issue 8,
p. 764 August 1984
Guatemala Mayan city may have ended in
By Sarah Grainger
EL MIRADOR, Guatemala (Reuters) - One of
Guatemala's greatest ancient Mayan cities may have died out in
a bloody battle atop a huge pyramid between a royal family and
invaders from hundreds of miles away, archaeologists say.
Researchers are carrying out
on blood samples from hundreds of spear tips and arrowheads
dug up with bone fragments and smashed pottery at the summit
of the El Tigre pyramid in the Mayan city of El Mirador,
buried beneath jungle vegetation 8 km from Guatemala's border
Many of the excavated blades are made of
obsidian which the archaeologists have traced to a source
hundreds of miles away in the Mexican highlands. They believe
the spears belonged to warriors from Teotihuacan, an ancient
civilization near Mexico City and an ally of Tikal, which was
an enemy city of El Mirador.
"We've found over 200 of the obsidian
tips alone, as well as flint ones, indicating there was a
tremendous battle," said excavation leader Richard Hansen, a
senior scientist in
University's anthropology department who is
pushing the pyramid battle theory.
"It looks like this was the final point
of defense for a small group of inhabitants," told Reuters.
El Mirador is one of the biggest ancient
cities in the Western Hemisphere and is thought to have been
home to between 100,000 and 200,000 people at its height.
Historians believe it was built up from around 850 BC and
flourished for hundreds of years before it was mysteriously
abandoned in 150 AD.
Many archaeologists think the size and
elaborate stucco decoration of the buildings in the city are
to blame as the inhabitants used up stone, trees and lime
plaster in their construction until their resources were
Hansen's team believes a group of some
200 people, thought to be the last remnants of the royal
family, stayed in the ruined metropolis until they were
attacked by warriors from Teotihuacan.
They believe the invaders were
allies of Tikal, around 60 km to the southeast,
which resented being dwarfed by the enormous
pyramids of El Mirador and was eager to make sure
the enemy never recovered. They think Teotihuacan
warriors trapped the survivors in a siege before a
bloody battle that sealed the city's fate.
Hansen's archaeologists found
graffiti they believe was left by Teotihuacan
fighters who smashed up carved Maya monoliths and
left crudely etched skull drawings, known as
Tlalocs, on the rock as proof of their victory.
"The Tlaloc is the war god image
of the highland Mexicans (and we found it) crudely
pecked on these monuments, suggesting that perhaps
a hostile event had taken place here," Hansen
The team sent excavated spear
tips to a lab in Missouri where scientists are
trying to extract blood samples for
DNA tests. They expect to find
one DNA type in blood on the obsidian objects and
a different type on the Maya-made flint fragments,
suggesting a battle between two racial groups.
El Mirador is home to one of
the world's biggest pyramids by volume, La Danta,
named after the tapirs that roam the dense jungle
that hid the pre-Columbian treasures for decades
until the site was discovered in the early 20th
American archeologists who
made an aerial survey of the El Mirador Basin in
Guatemala's northern Peten region in the 1930s
mistook the tree- and vegetation-covered pyramid
for a volcano.
Hansen has worked with teams
digging at El Mirador for some 30 years. The site
is at risk from looters, poachers and loggers
trying to make a living out of the forest, as well
as drug traffickers seeking to move cocaine into
Last year, President Alvaro
Colom announced the creation of a huge park in the
Peten region to encompass both El Mirador and the
already excavated Tikal, a popular tourist site.
The park will include a silent
propane-powered train to lug tourists to the El
Mirador ruins, currently only accessible by
helicopter or a two-day hike through the jungle.
Pyramids of the Sun and Moon in Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan was, at its height in the first half of
the 1st millennium CE, the largest pre-Columbian city in the Americas. The
city during its existence was larger than any European city of the same
era, possibly including Rome. The civilization and cultural complex
associated with the site is also referred to as Teotihuacan. Its influence
spread throughout Mesoamerica; evidence of Teotihuacano presence, if not
outright political and
control, can be seen at numerous sites in Veracruz and the Maya region.
The city was located in what is now the San Juan Teotihuacán municipality
in the State of México, Mexico, approximately 40 km (24.8 mi) northeast of
Mexico City. It covers a total surface area of 83 kms and was made a
UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987.
The early history of Teotihuacan is quite mysterious,
and the origin of its founders is debated. For many years, archaeologists
believed it was built by the Toltec. This belief was based on colonial
period texts such as the Florentine Codex which attributed the site to the
Toltecs. However, the Nahuatl word "Toltec" generally means "craftsman of
the highest level" and may not always refer to the archaeological Toltec
civilization centered at Tula, Hidalgo. Since Toltec civilization
flourished centuries after Teotihuacan, they cannot be understood as the
In the Late Formative period, a number of urban
centers arose in central Mexico. The most prominent of these appears to
have been Cuicuilco, on the southern shore of Lake Texcoco. Scholars have
speculated that the eruption of the Xitle volcano may have prompted a mass
emigration out of the central valley and into the Teotihuacan valley.
These settlers may have founded and/or accelerated the growth of
Other scholars have put forth the Totonac people as
the founders of Teotihuacan, and the debate continues to this day. There
is evidence that at least some of the people living in Teotihuacan came
from areas influenced by the Teotihuacano civilization, including the
Zapotec, Mixtec and Maya peoples. The culture and
of Teotihuacan was influenced by the Olmec people, who are considered to
be the "mother civilization" of Mesoamerica. The earliest buildings at
Teotihuacan date to about 200 BCE, and the largest pyramid, the Pyramid of
the Sun, was completed by 100 CE.
The Pyramid of the Sun
The Pyramid of the Sun is the largest building in
Teotihuacán and one of the largest in Mesoamerica. Found along the Avenue
of the Dead, in between the Pyramid of the Moon and the Ciudadela, and in
the shadow of the massive mountain Cerro Gordo, the pyramid is part of a
large complex in the heart of the city.
The name Pyramid of the Sun comes from the Aztecs,
who visited the city of Teotihuacán centuries after it was abandoned; the
name given to the pyramid by the Teotihuacanos is unknown. It was
constructed in two phases. The first construction stage, around 100 A.D.,
brought the pyramid to nearly the size it is today. The second round of
construction resulted in its completed size of 738 feet (225 meters)
across and 246 feet (75 meters) high, making it the third largest pyramid
in the world behind the Great Pyramid of Cholula and The Great Pyramid.
The second phase also saw the construction of an altar atop of the
pyramid, which has not survived into modern times. The Adosada platform
was added to the pyramid in the early third century, at around the same
time that the Ciudadela and Temple of the Feathered Serpent, Teotihuacan
Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent were constructed.
Over the structure the ancient Teotihuacanos finished
their pyramid with lime plaster imported from surrounding areas, on which
they painted brilliantly colored murals. While the pyramid has endured for
centuries, the paint and plaster have not and are no longer visible. Few
images are thought to have been included in the mural decorations on the
sides of the pyramid. Jaguar heads and paws, stars, and snake rattles are
among the few images associated with the pyramids.
It is thought that the pyramid venerated a deity
within Teotihuacan society but the destruction of the temple on top of the
pyramid, by both deliberate and natural forces prior to the archaeological
study of the site, has so far prevented identification of the pyramid with
any particular deity. Some scholars have suggested that the deity of the
pyramid was the Great Goddess, one of two major Teotihuacan deities and
one of the few goddesses in ancient Mesoamerica. However, little evidence
exists to support this theory.
The first major archaeological excavation of the site
was done by Leopoldo Batres in 1906. Batres supervised restoration of the
Pyramid for the 1910 centennial of Mexican independence. Some aspects of
Batres' reconstruction of the pyramid have been questioned by later
archaeologists. Subsequent excavations of Teotihuacan have continued to
the present. In 1925 Pedro Dosal discovered skeletons at the 4 corners of
the foundations of the temple, which he interpreted as human sacrifices at
the dedication of the temple.
Structure location and orientation
The orientation of the structure may hold some
anthropological significance. The pyramid is oriented slightly northwest
of the horizon point of the setting sun on two days a year, August 12 and
April 29, which are about one divinatory calendar year apart for the
Teotihuacanos. The day of August 12 is significant because it would have
marked the date of the beginning of the present era and the initial day of
the Maya long count calendar. In addition, many important astrological
events can be viewed from the location of the pyramid that are important
in terms of both agriculture and belief systems of the ancient society.
The pyramid was built over a man-made tunnel leading
to a "cave" located six meters down beneath the center of the structure.
Originally this was believed to be a naturally formed lava tube cave and
interpreted as possibly the place of Chicomoztoc, the place of human
origin according to Nahua legends. More recent excavations have suggested
that the space is man-made instead, and could have served as a royal tomb.
In 2008 scientists used muon detectors to try to find other chambers
within the interior of the pyramid, but substantial looting has prevented
the discovery of a function for the chambers in Teotihuacan society.
Only a few caches of artifacts have been found in and
around the pyramid. Obsidian arrowheads and human figurines have been
discovered inside the pyramid and similar objects have been found at the
nearby Pyramid of the Moon and Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent in the
Ciudadela. These objects may have represented sacrificial victims. In
addition, burial sites of children have been found in excavations at the
corners of the pyramid. It is believed that these burials were part of a
sacrificial ritual dedicating the building of the pyramid.
Temple of the Feathered Serpent
The "Temple of the Feathered Serpent" of Teotihuacan
is an important religious and political center of the
city. The Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent has revealed a great deal about
religious ceremonies, burials, and politics in ancient Mesoamerica for the
site of Teotihuacan. The structure contains some of the earliest-known
representations of the Mesoamerican "plumed serpent" deity figure, most
generally known by the term Quetzalcoatl, from the Nahuatl language of the
much-later Aztec peoples.
The Feathered Serpent Pyramid is located at the
Pre-Columbian site of Teotihuacán, which was at one time the largest city
in the western hemisphere. The Feathered Serpent Pyramid is located in the
Ciudadela at the South end of the Avenue of the Dead, a long avenue which
is surrounded by platforms displaying the talud-tablero architectural
The Ciudadela is a Spanish term first used when the
Spanish conquistadors arrived at Teotihuacán. It is a structure with high
walls and a large courtyard that surrounds the Pyramid of the Feathered
Serpent. The Ciudadela¹s courtyard is massive enough that it could house
the entire adult population of Teotihuacán within its walls, which was
estimated to be one hundred to two hundred thousand people during its
peak. Within the Ciudadela there are several monumental structures,
including the Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent, two mansions on the North
and South side of the pyramid and the Adosada platform. The Adosada
platform is located on the front, West side of the Pyramid of the
Feathered Serpent, blocking its front view.
The Feathered Serpent Pyramid is built in the
talud-tablero style, with several platforms forming the pyramid. In
between every platform there is a wall where a feathered serpent¹s head
sticks outward. Its body wraps around the entire pyramid. Along with the
feathered serpent there is also another figure that some believe is a
representation of a crocodile or a representation of the deity Tlaloc.
These figures alternate around the pyramid. In the eyes of these figures
there is a spot for obsidian glass to be put in, so when the light hits,
its eyes would glimmer. In between the heads a row of three shells can be
found, showing that the people of Teotihuacán were trading with people
along the Mexican coast. In antiquity the entire pyramid was painted.
Today it is hidden by the adosada platform built in the 4th century
hinting at political restructurisation of Teotihuacan during that time.
Burials at the Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent
The people of Teotihuacan believed in ritual
sacrifice to satisfy the gods. Multiple burials were found at the pyramid,
and it is believed that they were sacrificed as part of the dedication of
the temple. The numbers of the burials are 4, 8, 9, 13, 18, and 20; these
numbers represent significant ideology in Mesoamerica. There are four
directions in the world, nine layers of their underworld, thirteen layers
of heaven and earth, and a ritual calendar of thirteen months of twenty
days or two hundred and sixty day calendar, and a solar calendar of
eighteen months of twenty days.
Relation to the Calendar
As stated above there was a correlation between the
Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent and a calendar for the people of
Teotihuacán. The pyramid also is thought to contain two hundred and sixty
feathered serpent heads between the platforms. Each of these feathered
serpents also contains an open area in its mouth. This open area is big
enough to put a place holder in. Thus, it is believed that the people of
Teotihuacán would move this place marker around the pyramid to represent
the ritual calendar. When a spiritual day would arrive the people would
gather within the walls of the Ciudadela and celebrate the ritual.
The Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent was not only a
religious center but also a political center as well. The rulers of
Teotihuacán were not only the leaders of men; they were also the spiritual
leaders of the city. The two mansions near the pyramid are thought to have
been occupied by powerful families. An interesting feature of the
Feathered Serpent Pyramid is that there are examples of a shift in power
or ideology in Teotihuacán and for the Pyramid itself. The construction of
the Adosada platform came much later than the Feathered Serpent Pyramid.
The Adosada platform is built directly in front of the pyramid and blocks
its front view. Thus, it is thought that the political leaders lost favor
or that the ideology of the Feathered Serpent Pyramid lost virtue and was
covered up by the Adosada.
Teotihuacan reached its zenith between 150 and 450, when it was the center
of a powerful culture whose influence extended through much of the
Mesoamerican region. At its height the city covered over 30 kms (over 11
1/2 square miles), and probably housed a population of over 150,000
people, possibly as many as 250,000. Various districts in the city housed
people from across the Teotihuacano region of influence that spread south
as far as Guatemala. Notably absent from the city are fortifications and
The nature of political and cultural interactions
between Teotihuacan and the centers of the Maya region (as well as
elsewhere in Mesoamerica) has been a long-standing and significant area
for debate in Mesoamerican scholarship. It is clearly established that
substantial exchange and interaction occurred over the centuries from the
Terminal Preclassic to the Mid Classic period, and that
"Teotihuacan-inspired ideologies" and motifs persisted at Maya centers
into the Late Classic long after Teotihuacan itself had declined.
However, there are several schools of thought
contending the extent and degree of Teotihuacano influence, which range
from a direct and even militaristic dominance, to one where the adoption
of 'foreign' traits was part of a selective, conscious and bi-directional
cultural diffusion. But because of new discoveries, it now seems that
Teotihuacan was not much more different from the later empires, such as
the Toltec and Aztec. It is believed that Teotihuacán had a major
influence on the Preclassic and Classic Maya, most likely by conquering
several Maya centers and regions including Tikal and the region of Peten,
and influencing Maya culture.
Architectural styles prominent at Teotihuacan are
also found widely dispersed at a number of distant Mesoamerican sites,
which some researchers have interpreted as evidence for Teotihuacan's
far-reaching interactions and political or militaristic dominance.
A style that has been particularly associated with
Teotihuacan is known as talud-tablero, in which an inwards-sloping
external side of a structure (talud) is surmounted by a rectangular panel
(tablero). Variants of the generic style are found in a number of Maya
region sites, including Tikal, Kaminaljuyu, Copan, Becan, and Oxkintok,
and particularly in the Petén Basin and the central Guatemalan highlands.
However, it has been established that the
talud-tablero style pre-dates its earliest appearance at Teotihuacan in
the Early Classic period, and instead seems to have first originated in
the Tlaxcala-Puebla region during the Preclassic.
Analyses have also been able to trace the development
into local variants of the talud-tablero style at sites such as Tikal,
where its use precedes the 5th-century appearance of iconographic motifs
shared with Teotihuacan. Thus it appears that the talud-tablero style
disseminated through Mesoamerica generally from the end of the Preclassic
and not specifically or only via Teotihuacano influence. It is unclear how
or from where the style spread into the Maya region.
The city was a center of industry, home to many
potters, jewelers and craftsmen. Teotihuacan is known for producing a
great number of obsidian artifacts. Unfortunately no ancient Teotihuacano
non-ideographic texts are known to exist (or known to have existed), but
mentions of the city in inscriptions from Maya cities show that
Teotihuacan nobility travelled to and perhaps conquered local rulers as
far away as Honduras. Maya inscriptions mention an individual nicknamed by
scholars as "Spearthrower Owl", apparently ruler of Teotihuacan, who
reigned for over 60 years and installed his relatives as rulers of Tikal
and Uaxactun in Guatemala.
Most of what we infer about the culture at
Teotihuacan comes from the murals that adorn the site (and others, like
the Wagner Murals, found in private collections) and from hieroglyphic
inscriptions made by the Maya describing their encounters with
Teotihuacano conquerors. The creation of murals, perhaps tens of thousands
of murals, reached its height between 450 and 650 CE. The painters'
artistry was unrivalled in Mesoamerica and has been compared with that of
There is archaeological evidence that Teotihuacan was
a multi-ethnic city, with distinct Zapotec, Mixtec, Maya and what seem to
be Nahua quarters. The Totonacs have always maintained that they were the
ones who built it, a story that was corroborated later by the Aztecs.
In his 2001 paper, Terrence Kaufman presents
linguistic evidence suggesting that an important ethnic group in
Teotihuacán was of Totonacan and/or Mixe-Zoquean linguistic affiliation.
He uses this to explain general influences from Totonacan and Mixe-Zoquean
languages in many other Mesoamerican languages many of which do not have
any known history of contact with either of the above-mentioned groups.
The religion of Teotihuacan is similar to those of
other Mesoamerican cultures. Many of the same gods were worshiped,
including the Feathered Serpent and The Rain god. Teotihuacan was a major
religious center, and the priests probably had a great deal of political
power. As with other Mesoamerican cultures, Teotihuacanos practiced human
sacrifice. Human bodies and animal sacrifices have been found during
excavations of the pyramids at Teotihuacan; it is believed that when the
buildings were expanded, sacrifices were made to dedicate the new
building. The victims were probably enemy warriors captured in battle and
then brought to the city to be ritually sacrificed so the city could
prosper. Some were decapitated, some had their hearts removed, others were
killed by being hit several times over the head and some were even buried
alive. Animals that were considered sacred and represented mythical powers
and military might were also buried alive but imprisoned in cages:
cougars, a wolf, eagles, a falcon, an owl, and even venomous snakes.
The city's broad central avenue, called "Avenue of
the Dead" (a translation from its Nahuatl name Miccoatli), is flanked by
impressive ceremonial architecture, including the immense Pyramid of the
Sun (second largest in the New World after the Great Pyramid of Cholula)
and the Pyramid of the Moon. Along the Avenue of the Dead are many smaller
talud-tablero platforms. The Aztecs believed they were tombs, inspiring
the name of the avenue. Now they are known to be ceremonial platforms that
were topped with temples. Further down the Avenue of the Dead is the area
known as the Citadel, containing the ruined Temple of the Feathered
Serpent. This area was a large plaza surrounded by temples that formed the
religious and political center of the city. The name "Citadel" was given
to it by the Spanish, who believed it was a fort. Most of the common
people lived in large apartment buildings spread across the city. Many of
the buildings contained workshops that produced pottery and other goods.
The geographical layout of Teotihuacan is a good
example of the Mesoamerican tradition of planning cities, settlements and
buildings as a representation of the Teotihuacano view of the Universe.
Its urban grid is aligned to precisely 15.5º east of North. The Street of
the Dead, in particular, seems to line up with Cerro Gordo to the north of
the Pyramid of the Moon. Pecked-cross circles throughout the city and in
the surrounding regions indicate how the grid was managed over long
Knowledge of the huge ruins of Teotihuacan was never
lost. After the fall of the city, various squatters lived on the site.
During Aztec times, the city was a place of pilgrimage and identified with
the myth of Tollan, the place where the sun was created. Teotihuacán
astonished the Spanish conquistadores during the post-conquest era. Today
Teotihuacan is one of the most noted archaeological attractions in Mexico.
Excavations and investigations
Minor archaeological excavations were conducted in
the 19th century, and in 1905 major projects of excavation and restoration
began under archaeologist Leopoldo Batres. The Pyramid of the Sun was
restored to celebrate the centennial of Mexican Independence in 1910.
Excavations at the Ciudadela were carried out in the 1920s, supervised by
Manuel Gamio; other sections of the site were excavated in the 1940s and
50s. The first site-wide project of restoration and excavation was carried
out by INAH from 1960-65 and supervised by Jorge Acosta. This focused on
clearing the Street of the Dead, consolidating the structures facing it,
and excavating the Palace of Quetzalpapalotl.
During the installation of a 'sound and light' show
in 1971, the entrance to a tunnel and cave system underneath the Pyramid
of the Sun was accidentally discovered. Long thought to be a natural cave,
more recent examinations have established the tunnel was entirely
artificial. The interior of Pyramid of the Sun has never been fully
Another major program of excavation and restoration
was carried out 1980-82 at the Pyramid of the Feathered Serpent and the
Street of the Dead Complex. Most recently, a series of excavations at the
Pyramid of the Moon have greatly expanded evidence of cultural practices.
It was previously believed that sometime during the
7th or 8th centuries, the city was sacked and burned by invaders, possibly
the Toltecs. More recent evidence, however, seems to indicate that the
burning was limited to the structures and dwellings associated primarily
with the elite class. Some see this as evidence that the burning was from
an internal uprising and that the invasion theory is flawed due to the
fact that early archaeological work on the city was focused exclusively on
the palaces and temples, places used by the elites, and because all of
these sites showed burning, archaeologists concluded that the whole city
was burned. Instead, it is now known that the destruction in the city was
focused on major civic structures along the Avenue of the Dead.
Some statues seem to have been destroyed in a
methodical way, their fragments dispersed. Evidence for population decline
beginning around the 6th century lends some support to the internal unrest
hypothesis. The decline of Teotihucán has been correlated with the
droughts related to the Climate changes of 535-536 CE. This theory is
supported by the archaeological remains that show a rise in the percentage
of juvenile skeletons with evidence of malnutrition during the 6th
century. This does not conflict with either of the above theories however
since both increased warfare and internal unrest can also be effects of a
general period of drought and famine.
Other nearby centers such as Cholula, Xochicalco, and
Cacaxtla attempted to fill the powerful vacuum left by Teotihuacan's
decline. They may have aligned themselves against Teotihuacan in an
attempt to reduce its influence and power. The art and architecture at
these sites shows an interest in emulating Teotihuacán forms, but also a
more eclectic mix of motifs and iconography from other parts of
Mesoamerica, particularly the Maya region.
Pyramid of the Moon Photo Gallery
|Cholula Archaeological Ruins
George & Audrey
This Church Of "Nuestra Señora de los Remedios."
Actually Sits On The Pyramid Of Tipanipa at Cholula!
It Can Be Seen From Many Miles Away! Popocatepetl In Background!
Cholula means "Place Of Those Who Fled" or "Water That Falls In The
Place Of Flight."
Cholula: The Pyramid of Tipanipa, "The Worlds Largest Pyramid!" For
years the "Pyramid of Tipanipa" at Cholula was said to be the worlds
largest pyramid. Not even the Great Pyramid of Egypt, had a larger
Now, there is another located in the ancient ruins of El Mirador in
Guatemala. El Mirador covers 10 square mile and its largest pyramid is
called The Danta Pyramid. Rising 230 feet, The Danta Pyramid is said
to be the tallest structure the Maya ever built.
Even so, that still does not take away from the fact that the
archaeological site of Cholula's main pyramid is pretty big! It's base
has been measured to be about 400 meters to a side It covers 25 acres
and it is 181 feet high. That still makes it the largest base for any
The Cholula Pyramid is oriented to the North North West and it aims
at the setting sun during summer solstice. There is a natural spring
located beneath the pyramid which is probably why it was built in its
original location. There is also a cave under the pyramid. In the
center of the pyramid there is a chamber that may represent an
Cholula was the most important center of the Mexican highlands
after the fall of Teotihuacan. It is located near the twin volcanic
peaks Iztaccihuatl and Popocatepetl and the city of Puebla.
The Great Pyramid Of Tipanipa, dedicated to Quetzalcoatl, is the
largest single structure in Mexico. Towering 181 feet high and
covering an area of some 25 acres, the pyramid was begun in
Pre-Classic times and enlarged at least four times.
In 1982 Tipanipa really did look like a big hill, with a Spanish
Colonial church on top. It was difficult from a distance to imagine
anything else. Seen from a distance today, it appears as a large hill
surrounded by a city, with a Colonial church resting at its summit.
The interior of the pyramid has been extensively excavated, affording
visitors an extraordinary opportunity to view the different phases of
In 1910, the Cholula Pyramid was uncovered during the construction
of an insane asylum.
Archaeologists say it was in use at the same time as the great
Pyramids of the Sun and the Moon at Teotihuacan. If so, it would have
been in use a thousand years before the time of these events, and
could have been covered and forgotten.
A common story that is told today is that when the conquistadors
were invading the land, the great pyramid was so sacred that when the
people realized the conquistadors were coming, they organized a work
force to cover it with soil so that the Spaniards wouldn't destroy it
We doubt if that story is true, but it would be interesting to
learn how and why the Pyramid Of Tipanipa at Cholula was covered with
a dirt hill.
We have been to Cholula on two different occasions. First in
December of 1982 and again on January 17, 2004. It is amazing to see
how the population of Mexico City has grown clear out to the edges of
Puebla and how the City of Puebla has grown up around the Pyramid Of
Our pages will mostly show what Cholula was like in 1982 and we
will show some of the changes that have taken place with photos of
January of 2004. We also will include the Cholula Museum on our page,
which we did not see in 1982.
This first page is totally made up of photos taken on December of
1982. We wanted to show these pictures so that you can see what the
area looked like before the surrounding cities grew up all around the
area of the Pyramid.
|The Church Was Built On Top Of
The Pyramid Of Tipanipa
|Audrey, "It Has The Longest Base
In The World! With Hundreds Of Other
Pyramids And Temples Around It!"
|Everywhere You Walk,
You See Pyramids And Temples
Covered By Dirt
|To Hide Them For Centuries!
|What A Complex Structure!
||West Side Of Pyramid
|Altars For Sacrifice
||Dirt Covered All Of The Temples
|Plaza Of The Altars
||Stone Head Close Up
|Plaza Of The Altars
||Plaza Of The Altars, Altar Three
|Post Classic Burial Pit
South Of The Plaza
Now Called Mexica Altar
|South Of The Plaza
Human Remains Were Found Here
In 2004 They No Longer Are Here
|The Modern City Of Puebla
Is Right Next To The Pyramid
|This Entrance Goes Into The Hill
To The Pyramid Of Tipanipa Base Steps
|You Go Inside The Entrance
||And There Are Many Places Like This
Where You See The Pyramid Steps
From Inside The Hill
|This Tunnel Follows The Base
||And Up The Steps
|Another Tunnel Following The Base
||Up The Pyramid
|Several Tunnels Go Up
Cholula Page Two, 2004 Pictures
Back To Mexico Trips Main Page
|Monk's Mound at Cahokia, USA
Just east of St. Louis, near Collinsville, Illinois is the largest
earth mound in the western hemisphere. It is 30 metres high and dates
back to 1100-1400 AD.
"The largest of these mounds, Monk's Mound covers 16 acres; it rests
on a base 1,037 feet long and 790 feet wide, with a total volume of
approximately 21,690,000 cubic feet, a base and total volume greater than
that of the pyramid of Khufu, the largest in Egypt. In all the world, only
the pyramids at Cholula and Teotihuacan in central Mexico surpass the
Cahokia pyramid in size and total volume. No other structure in the United
States approached the size of the Cahokia pyramid until the building of
airplane hangars, the Pentagon, and skyscrapers in the twentieth century."
There are more than one hundred other, smaller mounds at Cahokia
as well as Woodhenge, which is of course a wooden counterpart to England¹s
According to the Cahokia website, in March 1998 something unexpected
"During the process of installing horizontal drains to relieve the
internal water in Monks Mound that had contributed to several severe
slumping episodes along the west side (Second Terrace), the drilling rig
encountered stones about 140 feet in and 40 feet below the surface of the
Second Terrace. The operator said it felt like "soft stone," probably
limestone or sandstone, and that it was mostly cobbles or slabs at least
six inches in diameter. The drill went through about 32 feet of stones and
the drill bit broke off. We have no idea what it is, what shape or size
it is, or why it is there. It should not be there. No other cores or
excavations have revealed stone in Monks Mound or any other mound at the
site, or, as far as we know, at other Mississippian mound sites. We do
not know its vertical thickness or the extent of it horizontally, other
than the 32 feet that the drill went through."
|Etowah Mounds of Cartersville, Georgia, USA|
These were made during the same Mississippian Temple Mound Building
Period, as were mounds at Moundville (near Tuscaloosa, Alabama) and at
Cahokia roughly 700 AD to 1400 AD.
The six flat-topped earthen knolls and a plaza were used for rituals by
several thousand Native Americans between 1000 and 1500 A.D. The largest
mound has a height of 63 feet. Only nine percent of this site has been
excavated, but we already know that the mounds have caves underneath them
as do some Mayan and Giza pyramids.
It may also just be a coincidence, but there is a Limonite mine at
Etowah. Limonite is a iron-bearing ore with a very special use - as
radiation shielding for atomic bomb tests, nuclear reactors and space
stations. It is also what gives Mars its red color.
Poverty Point combines mounds with an aspect of ancient Rome an
amphitheatre. Consisting of concentric ridges 5-10 feet high and 150
wide, the construction has a diameter of 3Ž4 of a mile, five times the
diameter of the Colosseum in Rome. The ridges were built with 530,000
cubic yards of earth (over 35 times the cubic amount of the Great Pyramid
of Giza). Of the earth mounds, one has a base of 700 feet by 800 feet and
is 70 feet high. It is shaped like a bird.
|Miamisburg Mound, Ohio, USA
This mound is conical, like Silbury Hill in England. Archaeologists
believe that it was constructed by the Adena Indians (800 BC 100 AD).
The mound sits on a 100 foot high bluff, and measures 877 feet in
circumference. Originally it attained a height of 70 feet.
beautiful two person crypt under the pyramid
addressed Ft Lauderdale and right at Davie,
this convenient location is just north of Hollywood in
Broward County Florida
Forest Lawn Memorial Gardens South
2401 SW 64th Avenue
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33317
Pyramids have occasionally been used in Christian architecture of the
feudal era, e.g. as the tower of Oviedo's Gothic Cathedral of San
Salvador. In some cases this leads tomasonic or other symbolical
An example of a modern pyramid can be found in Paris, France, in front
of the Louvre Museum. The
is a 20.6 meter (about 70 feet) glass structure which acts as an entrance
to the museum. It was designed by the American architect I. M. Pei and
completed in 1989.
The Transamerica Pyramid in Downtown San Francisco, California.
Pyramid Arena in Memphis, Tennessee (built in 1991) was the home court
for the University of Memphis men's basketball program, and the National
Basketball Association's Memphis Grizzlies until 2004.
Pyramid, home of the basketball and volleyball teams of the California
State University, Long Beach, campus in California, United States, is an
18-story-tall blue pyramid.
The Luxor Hotel
in Las Vegas, United States, is a 30-story pyramid.
Pyramid, a 3 story pyramid in Salt Lake City, Utah, used for
instruction in the Summum philosophy and conducting rites associated with
Underwater pyramid, Rock Lake
in Lake Mills, Wisconsin
'Home of the Wisconsin
Located in Lake Mills, Wisconsin is reported to have an ancient pyramid submerged in its waters.
Sauk Native Americans speak in their legends of a sacred site
close by a lake. The Sauk did not construct the site and related
structures - this was done by ancient peoples who were driven away
when the lake flooded. Stories have continued to the present
concerning Rock Lake "pyramids" and other underwater foundations.
The "pyramid" legends were revived during the mid 1930s when a
combination of low water and clear, dry summers allowed viewing of
a number of subsurface geometric forms including pyramids, cones,
walls, and trenches. One individual Max Knoll, using his own
invention - a form of SCUBA dive gear - dove the lake and viewed
many of these structures. Still, those who supported the theory of
man-made underwater structures were ridiculed and little was
proved either way.
The Rock Lake near Lake Mills, just west of Jefferson, has been a
place of hot scientific debate. There have been expeditions and fly-overs
that have revealed ancient underwater manmade pyramids. These pyramids
have also been connected to the ancient
Aztalan State-Park, which is in fact the remains of an immense Native
city, with fortified walls and excavations revealing hundreds of ancient
human remains, and perhaps evidence of cannibalism and human sacrifice.
Many even believe there is a powerful energy vortex around the lake and
park, as many visitors get headaches and a sick feeling shortly after
entering the area.
Interest in the structures was renewed when observations of SCUBA
divers were published in the 1960s. A major effort commenced in
the 1980s with a complete side scan sonar study of the lake floor
showing a number of unusual-shaped structures along a submerged
Side-scan sonar reading, indicating several artificial structures
beneath the surface of Rock Lake.
Unusually clean water conditions in 1991-92 allowed two of the
sites to be photographed in sufficient detail to prove their
existence as man-made structures. Sufficient evidence does not
exist to date the structures or to identify their builders. One
possibility is that they are associated with prehistoric copper
trade cultures which would coincide with the Post Algoma low lake
levels of 3,000 years ago.
Future research will hopefully tell us more about these ancient
visitors and their contributions to Wisconsin heritage.
It was during this time that King David was at the height of his
power. While God did not allow David to build the Temple of
Solomon he was allowed to make preparations for its construction.
The project was financed through the vast war booty and tribute
payments that poured in from vassel nations. The preparations and
instructions to Solomon are recorded in I Chronicles 22: 1-16.
David accumulated "great stores of iron for nails and clamps"
This iron may very well have been mined here in Wisconsin.
He also accumulated "bronze in quantities beyond weighing," (RSV)
Evidence will show that David mined the copper ore from Michigan
and it may have been refined here in Wisconsin, near Rock Lake.
King David also amassed much cedar wood through his alliance
with the city-states of Tyre and Sidon.
The harvesting of timber would again account for the desolate
plains , void of timber, in North America.
In the course of his wars, David had collected large amounts of
gold and silver from tributary nations, and verse 14 quotes David
as summing up his temple preparations with these words:
"With great pains I have provided for the house of the Lord a
hundred thousand talents of gold and a million talents of silver,
and bronze and iron BEYOND WEIGHING , for there is so much of it;
timber and stone too have I provided." (RSV). -- The "Lost" Ten
Tribes of Israel...Found!, p. 24.
KING SOLOMON AND THE HARVESTING OF
There is archaeological evidence, that the fleets of Solomon and
Hiram of Tyre circumnavigated the globe .
Hebrew customs, discovered by the early English settlers in the
Americas, were found among some of the Indian tribes, including
the wearing of phylacteries! Minoan and Phoenician coins have been
found, and inscriptions of ancient Phoenician and Minoan scripts,
in Tennessee, Alabama, Georgia, and the Star of David was even
found in an ancient ruin of the Pueblo Indians in New Mexico! In
the middle of the second millennium, B.C., and down to the time of
Solomon, circa 1000 B.C., oceanic travel by maritime powers in the
Middle East seems to have been fairly common.
In the book BRONZE AGE AMERICA, the late Dr. Barry Fell
(Professor Emeritus of Harvard University) records that copper
trading between ancient North America and the Old World was extant
prior to and DURING THE REIGN OF KING DAVID!
In his book, we find evidence from ancient inscriptions that
Norse kings carried on a copper trade with the New World in the
St. Lawrence River as early as 1700 B.C., seven centuries prior to
the reign of King David.
There is, clear evidence that David's allies, the Canaanite
Phoenicians, were included in the New World copper trade and that
some of David's huge stockpile of copper ore came from the
Phoenician's North American trading routes.
Notes Barry Fell --
"Around the northern shore of Lake Superior, and on the adjacent
Ile Royale, there are approximately 5,000 ancient copper mine
workings. In 1953 and 1956 Professor Roy Drier led two Michigan
Mining and Technology expeditions to the sites. Charcoal found at
the base of the ancient mining pits yielded radio carbon dates
indicating that the mines had been operated between 2000 B.C. and
1000 B.C...The most conservative estimates by mining engineers
show that at least 500 million pounds of metallic copper were
removed over that time span, and there is no evidence as to what
became of it. BRONZE AGE AMERICA, NY: Wallaby, 1976. P. 261.
Since the mining operations at these North American sites were
taking place during the reigns of David and Solomon, it is more
than likely that part of this Lake Superior copper was used to
satisfy David's voracious appetite for raw copper for the Temple.
The biggest customers for copper and other raw materials in the
world of the time were King David and Israel and, later, King
These ancient Lake Superior copper mines were worked to exhaustion
during the reign of King Solomon, meaning that they were producing
during the time that David was stockpiling copper ore "beyond
calculation" for the CONSTRUCTION OF THE TEMPLE IN JERUSALEM.!
The Bible states that ancient Israel, under King David, was
stockpiling massive quantities of copper ore around 1,000 B.C.
Sources also confirm that the North American copper mines ran out
of ore during the reign of Solomon. The connection between the two
is quite obvious: most of the ancient North American copper ore
was shipped to ancient Israel and used for the construction of the
Temple and later projects of Solomon. For More information that I
have on these people
Rock Lake, Located in Lake Mills, Wisconsin
was a pyramid resting beneath its waters. This pyramid is linked
to the people that were mining the copper in upper Michigan - thus
linked to the King Solomon Mines and/or Temple.
The legends of these 'stone tepees' were revived during the mid
1930's when a combination of low and clear water allowed viewing
of a number of its geometric forms, including g pyramids, cones,
walls, and trenches.
Again in 1991-92 , unusually clean water conditions allowed two
of the sites to be photographed in sufficient detail to prove once
and for all that these were man made structures.
PUTTING THE PIECES TOGETHER
By examining the work of Carl Munck, we can find a system of
coordinates that includes nearly every sacred site on earth. In
his 1977 book, THE CODE Munch, shows how all of the Egyptian
pyramids can be lined up into a very narrow strip that runs
straight north and south. (See illustrations )
These Grid lines (ley lines) carry flowing currents of energy
which cause spiraling vortices.
Gizeh is at exactly 30 degrees North latitude .Exactly one third
of the way, around the Earth, you come to Mesoamerica, home of
the Aztecs and Maya. A literally identical grid band shows up
here – 120 degrees from Gizeh-
The entire pyramid complex of Tikal conforms to the north-south
grid line configuration!
If you extend the line further north, IT EMCOMPASSES THE PYRAMID
AND RELATED ARTIFACTS FOUND IN ROCK LAKE .
ENERGY DISTURBANCES AFFECTING THE
Strange things happen around the area of Rock Lake. People see
things that aren't there - Ice fishermen can't start their
chainsaws out on the ice, but back on shore they start fine - They
return to the ice and again run into the same problem. Scuba
divers, trying to film the underwater pyramids can't get their
cameras to work. Other divers, preparing to dive into the waters
of the pyramid, are overcome with a sense of dread.
It is apparent that there is an energy disturbance going on in the
area - strong enough to cause mechanical failure as well as
affecting the human consciousness.
It is also apparent that this area represent stress points of
higher dimensional and intelligent energy. The higher frequencies
of energy would render such things as spark plugs for chainsaws
and batteries for electronic cameras inoperable, as it would
actually change the vibratory rate of electromagnetic frequencies,
thus making them incompatible with ordinary devices. ( We
experience the same result when a ufo closely approaches an area
- . all mechanical / electrical items stop functioning.)
These frequencies also affect the human consciousness, leading
people to have 'screened visions'. Emotions are affected by these
frequencies with some experiencing anxiety while others a sense of
euphoria. Some people have sensed that 'time has stopped' or
that everything seems to have turned into a silent void. . (
Similar human reactions occur during the presense of a UFO)
It appears that the BUILDERS OF THE ROCK LAKE AREA WERE HARNESSING
USABLE ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY. a technology modern man has yet to
put to practical use. ( It also seems that the people piloting
these ufos are also harnessing this usable energy in these high
energy points such as Rock Lake.
TIKAL AND ROCK LAKE PYRAMID CONNECTION
Now we know that Rock Lake has demonstrated anomalies. But what
about Tikal? Carl Munck discusses the main pyramid at Tikal, which
is at the lower portion of the American grid line at the Yucatan,
(see plate 1) indicating that it is unique in several ways.
First, its depth shows an exact harmonic of the equatorial
circumference of the Earth in feet - 24.9015, which is a harmonic
of 24,901.5 statute miles. He goes on to show how the Tikal
pyramid encodes the exact measurement for the surface area of a
sphere, which will always be 41252.96127 square degrees. When we
multiply this sphere number by three, representing the three
staircases on the pyramid, one discovers the pyramid’s exact
longitudinal coordinates on the Grid! This looks very curious, as
we are taking a number representing a sphere and using it in a set
of three. This is just like our tetrahedron dividing the spherical
Earth into thirds.
CHAPTER 11: GLOBAL GRID II:
HYPERDIMENSIONAL CRYSTALS BEGIN TAKING SHAPE ON PLANETS
Rock Lake Pyramid Photo THE LIMNATIS (of the lake) PYRAMID
Frank Joseph,, author of THE LOST PYRAMIDS OF ROCK LAKE states
that beneath the surface of Rock Lake lie at least ten structures.
Two of these have been mapped and photographed by skin divers and
sonar. One of these structures is called Limnatis Pyramid and
has a base width of 60 feet, a length of about 100 feet, and a
height of 18 feet, although only about 10 feet protrude from the
silt and mud. It is a truncated pyramid, built largely out of
round, black stones. On the truncated top, the stones are squarish
. It seems that the structure itself had a coating of some kind of
a plaster substance.
Excerpted in part from:
From Science Frontiers #66, NOV-DEC
1989. © 1989-2000 William R. Corliss
Rock Lake (Wisconsin)
Rock Lake is a
Rock Lake is in south central Wisconsin, at
Lake Mills, Wisconsin in
Jefferson County, Wisconsin approximately 20 miles (32 km)
Madison. It is 87 feet (27 m) at its deepest point. Lake Mills
is a quaint small town.
Mounds shaped like pyramids exist three miles (5 km) east of
Rock Lake in a State Park called
Aztalan State Park, on the
Crawfish River in the town of
Aztalan, Wisconsin. The park has National Landmark Status and
is a Midwestern archeological treasure. The mounds are thought to
have been built by the Mississippian Mound Builders, and it is
speculated that the site at Aztalan is a northern outpost of
Cahokia, a much larger city in present day
Illinois not far from
St. Louis, Missouri.
The waters of Rock Lake have also been referred to as "Tyranena",
(Tie-ra-nee-na) and that name has persisted in the area as well,
and is used by businesses, road names and a park that is on the
Rock Lake is perhaps most famous for its underwater
"pyramids" believed by some to be built by the Aztalan natives at
a time when water levels were much lower.
Approximately three miles from the Rock Lake Pyramids, is the
ancient ruins of Aztalan. Here there were found two truncated,
earthen pyramids, partially surrounded by a tall stockade. These
also showed signs of having a plaster substance used as a coating
Aztalan seems to have been occupied as late as the Fourteenth
Aztalan State Park
1855 map of Aztalan historical site;
north is to the right.
Aztalan State Park is a
state park located just south of the town of
Aztalan, Wisconsin at latitude N 43° 4' and longitude W 88°
52', and established in 1952. It was also designated a
National Historic Landmark in 1964 and added to the
National Register of Historic Places in 1966. The park covers
172 acres (0.7 km2 or 70
Aztalan is the site of an ancient
Native American settlement that flourished during the 10th to
Aztalan was first settled around 900 by a Native American
culture known as the
Middle Mississippian Tradition. The most famous example of a
Middle Mississippian settlement is at
Illinois. These settlements are characterized by the
agricultural practices. There are also elements of the
Woodland culture found here.
The residents were involved in long distance trade. Some of
the items found include
shells from the coast of the
Gulf of Mexico, and stone from other areas of the
Sometime between the years 1200 and 1300, the Aztalan
settlement was abandoned for reasons that remain unknown to this
Most of the residents dwelled in circular or rectangular
houses between the river and the Eastern secondary wall. The
placement of the structures suggests that the layout was planned,
but not in rows such as are found along
streets. Instead, it is thought that houses were constructed
around a central plaza area that may have been used for rituals.
Posts for the house frames were either placed in individual holes,
or in a trench dug slightly narrower than the posts.
were then completed with
wattle and daub, a plaster mixture of
roof covered with
thatch. The doorway usually faced south to keep out the
winter's north winds. Inside, a single family slept on pole frame
beds, covered with
skins, and furs. Sometimes a fire was kept in the middle of the
house and a hole in the roof let out the
Pits in the house stored foods like
in woven bags, while perishable foods like
were probably stored outside prior to cooking. Pits outside were
also used for
and community resources.
The site was well chosen to provide a variety of food
sources, and other resources. The staple of the
diet was corn or maize, and other plants were also gathered as
food, such as
hickory nuts, and
Tobacco was also grown at this time for rituals, as tobacco seeds
have been found at this site. The main source of meat was deer,
especially in the winter, and they also caught and ate
raccoons. They also hunted
mussels, and caught
in the Crawfish River directly next to the site, where they had
set up rock barriers called fish
at key points, one of which is still visible when the river is
low. Some of the fish found have been
pike, drum fish, and
Shell middens have been found where thousands of mussel shells
were disposed, creating layers of shells several feet thick.
Raw materials for
and building were available in the area, or could be obtained
trade from remote places.
for posts for house walls and stockades,
and firewood. Smaller tree branches and grass were used for
bedding and roofs. Shells from the river could be used for
spoons, and digging tools, and clay was dug for
pottery. Ornamental and exotic objects, or objects made from
foreign materials are commonly associated with status.
A view of Aztalan State Park with one of the stockades
surrounding a mound in the background.
The most obvious features of Aztalan are its
pyramid-shaped platform mounds and its
There are three platform mounds on the site. The largest is
the one in the southwest corner of the stockade; one almost as
large is located in the northwest corner. The smallest of the
three is along the east side of the settlement, near the Crawfish
River (labeled "West Branch of Rock River" on the plates). The
hill in the southeast corner is a natural
gravel knoll, not built by the inhabitants.
The largest mound was built in three stages, with a set of
steps leading to the top, where a structure was built over the
entire flat top. The mound was covered with a
cap, probably to enhance its appearance.
was stored in pits inside the structure, but there are several
theories about why this corn was kept here, and the reason for the
structure itself. This may have been the storage facility for the
entire village; storage for food just for the top village
officials; it may have been used for ceremonies and rituals; or it
could have been a house for the village officials. This structure
was rebuilt each time a larger stage of the mound was built on top
of the old.
The northwestern mound was also built in three stages. A
special structure, approximately 4 m by 2 m (12 ft by 5 ft), with
its long axis towards the northeast/southwest, was built on the
west side of the mound, with a doorway in its southwest corner,
and covered with a mixture of clay,
willow branches, and grass. The floor was covered with a mat
of what may have been
cattails, on which ten people were placed side by side, with
their heads towards the doorway, and the bones of another person
were bundled together with cord. Once this construction was
complete, and the bodies were inside, the building was burned.
The eastern mound had a large open-walled structure, about
12 by 27 m (40 by 90 ft), built on top of it, with firepits lined
with white sand inside. The function of this mound and structure
Additionally, to the northwest of the stockaded area, a row
of round mounds extends northward. When
archaeologists dug in these mounds during the 1920s, they did
not find the
burial sites they had expected. Instead, each mound had a
large post set in a pit in its center, surrounded by gravel and
soil, with the pit capped with clay and gravel to hold the post
steady. These mounds have been termed "marker mounds" because they
may have been used to mark the site for travelers, but this is not
certain; they may also have been used for announcements, message
relays, or for calculations of
The settlement was surrounded on the north, west, and south
sides by a stockade, a wall of logs set into the ground
vertically. These were made by digging narrow holes in the ground
with digging sticks, then lifting the posts into position and
setting them into the holes. The stockade was then finished by
weaving flexible willow branches through the posts, and plastering
the whole with a mixture of clay and grass to fill in the gaps, a
technique similar to
wattle and daub.
A smaller stockade was built within the outer one, around
the housing areas, at some point. It is not clear whether both
stockades existed simultaneously, for a layered
defense, or one was built after the other fell into disuse.
The outer stockade was described by Lapham (v.i.) as being
"631 feet (192 m) long at the north end, 1,149 feet (350 m) long
on the west side and 700 feet (213 m) on the south side; making a
total length of wall of 2,750 feet (838 m). The ridge or wall is
about 22 feet (7 m)wide, and from one foot to five (30 cm–1.5 m)
It had at least 33 square
watchtowers at regular intervals along its length, remarkably
similar in form and placement to
European fortifications, in addition to some more along the
secondary walls. Rather than having a gate to protect the
entrance, though, the builders constructed the entrance in such a
way that it was
camouflaged when one looked at it from the outside, blending
in with the wall around it.
During the time Aztalan was inhabited, two sets of outer
stockades were built. The posts of the first one eventually
rotted, and the second one burned and was never rebuilt. It is not
clear whether the purpose of the stockade was to keep out
invaders, or if the occupants built it for another reason.
Modern discovery (1835–1919)
In 1835, a young man named Timothy Johnson discovered the
of the ancient settlement, and in December of that year and
January 1836, N. F. Hyer committed the first rough survey of the
site, publishing the discovery in the Milwaukie Advertiser of
January 1837. According to Lapham:
- "The name Aztalan was given to this place by Mr. Hyer,
because, according to
Aztecs, or ancient inhabitants of
Mexico, had a tradition that their ancestors came from a
country at the north, which they called
Aztalan; and the possibility that these may have been
remains of their occupancy, suggested the idea of restoring the
name. It is made up of two Mexican words, atl, water, and an,
near; and the country was probably so named from its proximity
to large bodies of water. Hence the natural inference that the
country about these great lakes was the ancient residence of the
Hyer wrote that "We are determined to preserve these ruins
from being ruined." However, in 1838,
Martin Van Buren refused a request by
Edward Everett to withdraw the site from public sale, and the
site was sold for $22. In the following years, the surface was
plowed, the mounds were leveled for easier farming, pottery shards
and "Aztalan brick" were hauled away by the wagonload to fill in
potholes in township roads, and souvenir hunters took numerous
Increase A. Lapham, an author, scientist, and naturalist,
surveyed the site, and urged its preservation. At the time, the
stockade was still standing, though not in the condition it had
State park foundation and reconstruction (1919–present)
Historic marker for Aztalan State Park
In 1919, archaeological excavations began at Aztalan, under
the direction of Dr. S. A. Barrett. In 1920, the Landmarks
Committee of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin under
Publius V. Lawson started a new effort to save what remained of
Aztalan, supported by the Friends of Our Native Landscape and the
Wisconsin Archeological Society. They made their first purchase of
some of the land in 1921, three acres (12,000 m2) west
of the stockade with eight conical mounds, and presented it to the
Wisconsin Archeological Society.
Work for preservation continued. In 1936, the state's
archeological and historical societies petitioned the federal
government for funds to reconstruct the stockade without success.
In 1941, the newly-founded Lake Mills-Aztalan Historical Society
began an energetic campaign to preserve the stockade area.
In 1945, the
Wisconsin State Assembly passed a bill directing the State
Planning Board to study the possibility of establishing a state
park at Aztalan. In 1947, the
Wisconsin State Legislature passed a resolution requesting the
State Conservation Commission to purchase Aztalan. 120 acres
(490,000 m2) were purchased to this end in 1948, and
the Wisconsin Archeological Society and the Lake Mills-Aztalan
Historical Society donated their holdings. Aztalan opened to the
public as Aztalan State Park in 1952.
Aztalan was designated a registered
National Historic Landmark in 1964 and added to the
National Register of Historic Places in 1966.
In 1968, portions of the stockade wall were reconstructed by
placing new posts in the original holes. A section of this was
also covered with the wattle and daub, but this has since worn
away or been removed.
Register Information System". National Register of Historic
Places. National Park Service. 2008-04-15.
National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park
- ^ Lapham,
The antiquities of Wisconsin. Washington : Smithsonian
Institution, 1855. p. 43.
- ^ Lapham,
The antiquities of Wisconsin. Washington : Smithsonian
Institution, 1855. p. 42.
This audio file was created from a revision dated
2006-02-14, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the
Aztalan State Park is considered Sacred ground to many Native
American tribes in the area and should always be treated with respect and
honor, if you plan to visit these areas, please remember this.
MOUNDS IN THE UNITED STATES
CARL MUNCK GEMATRIA WORK -